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Avitaminosis – causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of vitamin deficiency. What is vitamin deficiency and how to deal with it?


Signs of vitamin deficiency in children and adults

Catalysts that cause vitamin deficiency of vitamins A, B, C and others are divided into external (food, environmental, etc.) and internal (due to dysfunction of internal organs).

Among the food prerequisites, the following reasons for the development of vitamin deficiency are distinguished:

  • Unbalanced diet.
  • Early or inappropriate introduction of complementary foods to babies.
  • Fasting, strict diets.
  • Eating poor quality products.
  • Inappropriate heat treatment and improper storage of food.
  • The use of medications that block the normal absorption of vitamins by the body.

In addition to the nutritional reasons for the appearance of strong vitamin deficiency, there are such external prerequisites for its development as:

  • Extreme living conditions (long stay in cold / hot latitudes, high in the mountains).
  • Strong or prolonged stressful conditions.
  • Alcohol abuse, nicotine and drug addiction.
  • Living in unfavorable environmental conditions.
  • Excessive physical activity.

It is also necessary to mention the internal prerequisites due to diseases and disorders of the internal organs. These include:

  • Deviations in the functioning of the digestive tract.
  • Insufficient level of development of the digestive tract (in children).
  • Dysfunctions of the endocrine system.
  • Weak body defenses.
  • Disruptions in the absorption system of vitamins. They manifest themselves in violation of transport and enzymatic functions, permeability of cell walls, as well as in deviations in the process of metabolism of vitamins.
  • The presence of parasites in the body.
  • Dysbacteriosis.
  • Diseases of the liver and kidneys.

Avitaminosis: symptoms

Depending on what kind of vitamin the body lacks, the signs of vitamin deficiency can vary greatly. Below is a list of symptoms that occur with a lack of vitamins A, B, C, D, E, PP, K.

Avitaminosis - causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of vitamin deficiency. What is vitamin deficiency and how to deal with it?

  • Avitaminosis on the skin manifests itself in the form of conditions such as: dryness, itching, burning, hyperpigmentation, increased skin pattern, decreased elasticity, the appearance of spider veins, rashes in the form of acne and acne, the formation of small weeping erosions, dry scales and microcracks, the appearance stretch marks and wrinkles. In some cases, sloughing of the top layer of the skin is possible.

  • On the part of the digestive system, there is a decrease in appetite, diarrhea or constipation, weight loss, vomiting.

  • From the side of the oral cavity, bleeding of the gums, thinning of tooth enamel, increased sensitivity of the teeth in relation to hot, cold, sweet, sour, slowing of the growth of teeth in children, and loss of teeth in adults may appear.

  • On the part of the hair and nails, fragility, delamination, yellowing and deformation of the nail plates, hair loss are observed.

  • From the side of the muscles, cramps can be diagnosed.

  • From the circulatory system: bruising, bleeding gums, hemorrhage into the vessels.

  • From the side of the organs of vision: “night blindness”, decreased visual acuity, feeling of sand under the eyelids.

  • On the part of the musculoskeletal system: fragility of bones, pain in joints and bones, disorders of the development of the musculoskeletal system in children.

  • General condition of the body: chronic fatigue syndrome, weakness, drowsiness, irritability, apathy, depression, dizziness, sleep disturbances, headaches, mood swings.

Options for how vitamin deficiency manifests itself may vary. Therefore, to establish an accurate diagnosis, you must consult a doctor.

Avitaminosis in children

Avitaminosis - causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of vitamin deficiency. What is vitamin deficiency and how to deal with it?

Children suffer from a lack or lack of vitamins in the body more often than adults. This is due to their fragile immune system and insufficient development of the gastrointestinal tract.

The state of vitamin deficiency can lead to a number of serious diseases, such as rickets and ichthyosis. Therefore, when the first signs of vitamin deficiency appear (with vitamin deficiency in hair, vitamin deficiency on the fingers, lips or legs), urgently take the child to a pediatrician for consultation.

Avitaminosis in women during pregnancy

During gestation, an additional load falls on the mother’s body. To make it easier to endure pregnancy, as well as provide the baby with the necessary vitamins, the expectant mother should carefully monitor her diet. Only a doctor can correct it and supplement it with the necessary vitamins. Doing this on your own is prohibited, since some vitamins cannot be taken during a certain trimester of pregnancy.

Avitaminosis - causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of vitamin deficiency. What is vitamin deficiency and how to deal with it?

Types of vitamin deficiency in the body

The most common types of the disease:

  • Vitamin A deficiency. The main indicators of the lack of this vitamin are visual impairment, anemia and symptoms of vitamin deficiency on the skin (its dryness and flaking). For treatment, it is necessary to adjust the diet: the inclusion in the diet of fish oil, fatty sour cream, vegetable oils, carrots, sea buckthorn, spinach.
  • Vitamin D vitamin deficiency. This vitamin is generated by exposure to sunlight. Its deficiency in the body manifests itself through increased sweating, constipation, pathology of the musculoskeletal system, irritability, problems with normal sleep. Food for vitamin D deficiency should be enriched with meat, fish, fish oil, liver, chicken eggs.
  • Lack of vitamin E. It is characterized by nervous disorders, vascular fragility, impaired reproductive function and dry skin. The diet should include vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, meat, eggs, milk.
  • Lack or lack of vitamin C. It manifests itself in the form of bleeding gums, swelling of the lower extremities, anemia, white coating on the tongue, weakness, dizziness. It is necessary to use rose hips or a decoction of them, citrus fruits, sorrel, bell peppers, mountain ash.
  • Lack of vitamin K. Its symptom is bleeding and hemorrhage. Beef liver, spinach, Brussels sprouts should be introduced into the diet.
  • Avitaminosis of vitamins of group B. Lack of one of the vitamins of this family – B1, B6, B12, B9 – leads to headaches, memory disorders, seizures, insomnia, stomatitis, impaired coordination, depression, tachycardia, pathology of the hematopoietic system. The emphasis in the diet should be on eggs, liver, legumes, bananas, cheese, fresh vegetables, bread.
  • Vitamin P deficiency. The main symptom is hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes. Rosehip berries, green tea, citrus fruits should be added to the diet.

Video: causes of vitamin deficiency

Winter and spring vitamin deficiency

In early spring, some people experience fatigue, dry skin and hair loss. Many people mistakenly call this condition vitamin deficiency. In the spring, we are usually talking about hypovitaminosis – not a complete absence of a vitamin, but just about its lack. The same can be said for the winter months.

Consequences of vitamin deficiency

Avitaminosis A (retinol). It can lead to retardation in the development and growth of the child, as well as cause vision problems, chicken blindness.

Avitaminosis B1 (thiamine). Thiamine deficiency can trigger the development of a disease such as “Beriberi”.

Vitamin deficiency B2 (riboflavin). Riboflavin deficiency can provoke the development of diseases such as cataracts, conjunctivitis, growth retardation in children, mental retardation.

Avitaminosis B3 (PP, niacin). Niacin deficiency can trigger the development of a disease such as pellagra.

Avitaminosis B5 (pantothenic acid). It is a common cause of early miscarriage of children.

Avitaminosis B9 (folic acid). It manifests itself in the form of impaired reproductive function in men, as well as anemia (anemia).

Vitamin deficiency B12 (cobalamin). Contributes to mental abnormalities – poor memory, distraction, dementia.

Avitaminosis C (ascorbic acid). Deficiency of ascorbic acid for a long time can lead to the development of a disease such as scurvy.

Avitaminosis D (calciferol). Deficiency of calciferol for a long time can lead to the development of a disease such as rickets.

Avitaminosis E (tocopherol). Deficiency of tocopherol can lead to muscle tissue dystrophy, anemia, anemia.

Avitaminosis F (linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acids). In children under 1 year old, it is expressed in lagging in growth and development. The tendency to cardiovascular diseases increases – atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke.

Avitaminosis K. It manifests itself in the form of severe bleeding from the nose, gums, subcutaneous, in the digestive tract.

Avitaminosis - causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of vitamin deficiency. What is vitamin deficiency and how to deal with it?

How to choose vitamins

The selection of vitamins for vitamin deficiency is selected by a nutritionist, depending on the clinical manifestations of vitamin deficiency.

At this stage, the less a person will show initiative, the more positive the prognosis will be.

Among modern vitamin complexes, vitamins are produced in the form of tablets, dragees, lozenges, capsules, powders and liquid form.

Doctors recommend taking vitamins in the form of capsules, because they are made in such a way that as they move in the digestive organs at each stage, vitamins are gradually absorbed by the body, providing all its way with the necessary dose of nutrients.

How to take vitamins correctly

The most appropriate time to take vitamins is in the morning, when the body adjusts to daytime activity.

Most vitamins are absorbed only with food. But you do not need to wash down vitamins with milk, soda and coffee – these drinks can interfere with their normal absorption.

Vitamins in capsule form should be taken whole without chewing.

Vitamins are vital for normal metabolism, cell renewal, and just for good health. And we need them not only at the end of winter, but also during severe stress, with increased physical exertion, climate change or habitual diet. People on strict diets and smokers are at risk and must drink vitamins all year round. In the period of the greatest probability of beriberi, some begin to take high doses of vitamins, multivitamins and vitamin-containing preparations sold in pharmacies. However, excessive use of them can cause serious harm to the body and cause a violation of their absorption in the intestines, which will further exacerbate the problem.

It is worth considering that the gifts of fields and gardens contain whole complexes of vitamins, but in the process of long-term storage, their amount decreases markedly, and heat treatment can destroy it altogether. Therefore, it is advisable to eat vegetables and fruits raw (for example, in the form of salads). If they are subjected to heat treatment, then in a microwave or steam, for example, in a double boiler. The same cooking method is good for meat and fish.

Essential vitamins for the human body

Looking at our image in the mirror in early spring, we understand that silky hair, fresh skin, and shine of eyes will help us return only a course of vitamin therapy.

Essential vitamins:

Hair – A, B2, B6, F, H.

Eyes – A and B.
Teeth – E and D.
Nails – A, D and C. Vitamins A, B, B12, E and F have a beneficial effect
on the skin and the whole body as a whole.

Scientists have proven that the vitamins that we get from natural products are best absorbed, while tablets are often excreted without having time to digest well and deliver the necessary substances to the body.

First signs

Avitaminosis does not have universal symptoms, since its manifestations directly depend on what kind of vitamin is lacking in the body. You can suspect the presence of such a pathological deviation by the presence of a person:

  • general weakness;
  • rapid fatigue;
  • decreased vision (with a sharp deficiency of retinol);
  • tendency to fractures, dislocations, subluxations (with a lack of calciferol);
  • disorders of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • peeling of the skin;
  • sleep disorders;
  • mood swings.

Of course, this symptomatology is also found in many other diseases, so you should not make a diagnosis yourself, but you should immediately seek help from a doctor.

Avitaminosis - causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of vitamin deficiency. What is vitamin deficiency and how to deal with it?

Classification and symptoms of vitamin deficiency

Symptoms and treatment of vitamin deficiency depends on which element is missing in the human body. It is noteworthy that women who are on strict diets are most often diagnosed with a deficiency of several nutrients at once.

Vitamin A vitamin deficiency

Retinol plays an important role in the work of the visual apparatus and the skin, therefore, with a lack of it, a person begins to suffer from:

  • deterioration of twilight vision;
  • dryness of the ocular mucosa;
  • dryness of the epidermis;
  • the formation of abscesses or inflammation on the skin;
  • peeling of the epidermal layer of the skin.

With a lack of retinol in the child’s body, serious problems with the general development of the child can begin. So, this applies not only to the physical development and growth of the body, but also to the formation and functioning of its nervous system. In parallel with this, there is a significant suppression of the activity of the immune system, which can result in a high incidence.

Group B vitamin deficiency

B vitamins are responsible for the activity of many organs and systems, so it is better not to allow a decrease in their level in the body. If this type of vitamin deficiency has already developed, then, first of all, the nervous and digestive systems will suffer from this.

So, in this situation, a person will suffer from insomnia, mood swings, and a general decline in strength. Tremors of the limbs, memory impairment, and trouble concentrating may occur.

Gastrointestinal disorders are manifested by digestive disorders – constipation, diarrhea, decreased or complete loss of appetite. The mucous membranes become inflamed, and “seizures” form around the mouth.

Avitaminosis type C

Lack of vitamin C in the body is accompanied by a whole range of disorders:

  • decreased performance;
  • increased fatigue;
  • constant sleepiness;
  • increased propensity to infectious diseases;
  • a decrease in the elasticity of the skin;
  • the formation of bruises and bruising even after minor blows;
  • decreased visual acuity.

With severe vitamin C deficiency, Scurvy develops, accompanied by bleeding gums and tooth loss.

Avitaminosis type D

Lack of calciferol in the body most often negatively affects the work of ODA. In children, a pathological deviation is accompanied by:

  • the development of rickets;
  • increased fatigue;
  • hyperhidrosis;
  • violation of the process of formation of teeth and skeleton.

In an adult, vitamin deficiency is manifested mainly by fragility of bones, pain in muscles and joints, and tooth decay. In addition, such a deviation is fraught with the development of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus or even cancer.

Lack of tocopherol

With a lack of vitamin E, the activity of the reproductive system is disrupted. In parallel, the development of fatty liver hepatosis occurs.

Reasons for lack of minerals and vitamins

The causes of vitamin deficiency, abnormalities in metabolism, may be different. Traditionally, risk factors are divided between external and internal.

The main reasons for the emergence of a deficiency of vitamins from the category of external are as follows:

  • violation of the nutritional balance (monotonous diet);
  • improper feeding system of children – early complementary feeding or the use of unacceptable products;
  • adherence to strict diets, mono diets, fasting;
  • substandard products;
  • storage and heat treatment of foods leading to the destruction of vitamins;
  • taking medications that interfere with the absorption of vitamins;
  • smoking, excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, drug addiction;
  • long stay in the Far North, tropical heat or in the highlands;
  • disproportionate physical activity on the body;
  • prolonged stress, constant depression;
  • bad ecology.

Internal prerequisites for the lack of synthesis / assimilation of a vitamin or element can be:

  • pathology of the kidneys and liver;
  • the effect on the body of parasites;
  • low immunity;
  • malfunctions of the endocrine system;
  • manifestation of dysbiosis;
  • diseases of the digestive tract;
  • delay in the development of the digestive tract in childhood;
  • problems with the absorption of vitamins at the cellular level and with the absorption of the intestinal mucosa.

Depending on the type of reasons that caused vitamin deficiency, a treatment plan is drawn up. In the case of external “enemies”, the main thing will be to eliminate them and bring them into balance, in the case of internal failures – the elimination of the root cause (pathology of this organ) with the maintenance of medicines containing vitamins for the duration of treatment.

Prevention of vitamin deficiency

In order not to get unpleasant and destructive consequences for your body, it is better to correctly prevent any diseases, including vitamin deficiency. This does not mean that you need to prescribe vitamins to yourself by handfuls, with the next “vitamin deficiency” from the TV screens. Much more effective preventive measures are:

  • balanced diet. It is necessary to say a resolute “no” to strict fashionable diets, especially on one product, the complete exclusion of fats, sugar and salt from the diet, and so on. Saying a resounding yes to food that has everything you need. And our body needs everything. Free applications of the body of gadgets will help you plan your diet, which will be considered BJU, vitamins and trace elements for you;
  • emphasis on vegetables and fruits. When doing this, choose seasonal products. Summer is what grows in your climate. In winter – conservation and harvesting, tropical fruits, which are now in season in their homeland;
  • Fresh greens, sprouted grains of wheat, oats, buckwheat, peas, lentils, radishes are suitable as natural vitamin complexes all year round – all these “germs” can be produced at home and get a balance of benefits without special costs and unnecessary pharmaceutical chemistry.

The golden rule: to prevent vitamin deficiency – include in your diet all food in correct proportions and forget forever about hungry diets, children’s prejudices – “I don’t eat that.”

Vitamin D deficiency deserves special attention – it is replenished by sunlight. So, despite modern horror stories, tanning cannot be completely ruled out. It must be taken in the correct dosage and with protective equipment.

The benefits of pharmacy vitamins

If you still develop vitamin deficiency, what vitamins to drink to combat it, the doctor will tell you. In the form of tablets and powders, vitamin complexes are prescribed for the purpose of prophylaxis or for milder forms of the disease. Serious vitamin deficiencies require vitamin infusions. This is done by intramuscular injection (sometimes very painful), rarely intravenously with a dropper.

Pharmacy multivitamins are well balanced and enclosed in capsules, the components of which have different absorption times – this is necessary so that there is a absorption time for incompatible elements.

The most favorable time for taking vitamin supplements is considered the earliest morning – you get a charge of vivacity and benefits for the whole day, wake up better, become more energetic.

Remember: treatment should only be prescribed by a qualified specialist.


Scurvy is an infection with many specific and striking symptoms. It cannot be confused with any other disease. Moreover, a diagnosis based on an examination can be made by both a therapist and a gastroenterologist, dentist, specialists of other related specialties. Scurvy can lead to a number of severe complications that cannot be self-medicated.


According to the complaints of patients, one can immediately see the picture characteristic of scurvy and understand what it is – scurvy at the everyday level. Initially, the patient will complain of apathy, lethargy, and decreased performance. This symptom accompanies many diseases, therefore, special attention should be paid to other complaints and symptoms of scurvy.

The patient will notice frequent bleeding from the nose, hemorrhages in the mucous membranes, pain in the joints when performing any physical activity. In some cases, the patient will report bone deformity. Scurvy suppresses the immune system, so the patient can note the frequency of viral diseases of the respiratory department.

It is necessary to learn about comorbidities. The onset of scurvy is possible in the presence of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, lack of vitamin C in the diet. It is also necessary to find out if the patient is observed by an infectious disease specialist. Severe infectious diseases can lead to the development of the disease.


After collecting the history, the doctor proceeds to the examination. The patient’s skin will have a pale yellow color with many petechiae on any part of the body. When examining the oral cavity, the doctor will see excessive bleeding of the gums, their swelling, gingivitis develops in severe stages. The patient’s teeth have excessive mobility, the patient may also report their loss.


Nowadays, doctors know how to diagnose and treat scurvy. The disease, if it occurs, then in most cases has a positive outcome. The death rate from scurvy is currently zero. Over the past five years, according to available data, 30 people have been ill with scurvy in the United States. In all cases, the problem was associated with an unbalanced diet. People ate a lot of fatty and high-calorie foods. One of those who had been ill ate vegetables and fruits. However, before eating, he subjected them to enhanced heat treatment, destroying the vitamins inside the products.

Massachusetts therapist Eric Churchill told reporters that he has encountered a patient with scurvy in his practice. The man, due to his mental disorders, ate only bread and cheese, which do not contain vitamin C.

Not so long ago, in 2016, scurvy was diagnosed in an eleven-month-old baby and in Spain. According to his parents, the boy ate only almond milk and refused any other food. The child started having problems with joints and muscles. He could only move with help. Any physical activity hurt him. However, the parents turned to doctors on time, who diagnosed the disease in a short time and restored the child’s health. They prescribed the boy a course of medications containing vitamins C and D, and after two months he could move independently.


Prevention of scurvy is based on the consumption of foods high in vitamin C. Most of all ascorbic acid, oddly enough, is found in rose hips – almost 700 mg per 100 grams. Also rich in vitamin C are sea buckthorn berries, black currants, kiwi, white cabbage and Brussels sprouts, kiwi, citrus fruits.

The product’s name Vitamin C content in 100 grams
Rosehip 650 mg
Sea buckthorn 200 mg
Sweet pepper (bulgarian) 200 mg
Black currant 200 mg
Kiwi 180 mg
Dried porcini mushrooms 150 mg
Brussels sprouts 100 mg

Rosehip decoction

Take a handful of dried rose hips, pour 0.5 liters of boiling water and leave to brew for 10 minutes. To do this, you need to select dishes with a tight-fitting lid. After that, the broth must be poured into a decanter or jar and let it brew for 6 hours. Strain the broth through a sieve to remove the leaves and rind. If desired, you can add honey or sugar to the broth. Take half a glass 3 times daily before meals. You need to store the broth in a cool place for no more than 3 days.

Infusion of black currant berries

As noted above, black currant also has a high content of vitamin C. 100 grams of berries contain 200 mg of it. The infusion recipe is very simple. Take 2 tablespoons of dried berries and cover them with two cups of boiling water. Leave the drink to steep for 1 hour. Then the product is ready for use.

Also, dried currant twigs and leaves can be added to tea leaves and consumed with black tea.

Avitaminosis - causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of vitamin deficiency. What is vitamin deficiency and how to deal with it?

It is absolutely known that the most important role in the prevention of hypovitaminosis of ascorbic acid is played by the correct diet. It is also necessary to engage in educational activities, especially in the marginalized segments of the population. The promotion of a healthy lifestyle is an integral part of the prevention of this disease. Nutritionists should educate the population on rational nutrition and advise on the correct choice of a particular diet. Elimination of various types of pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, antiseptic treatment of foci of infection, the appointment of vitamins to people at risk are the most important aspects that prevent the development of a disease such as scurvy.


Since scurvy develops with a lack of vitamin C, the main method of treatment is the patient’s diet. His daily diet should contain foods with an increased amount of ascorbic acid – greens, fresh vegetables and fruits, berries and juices to bring its content back to normal.

Bleeding gums are treated with point injections of vitamin C. To relieve inflammation in the oral cavity, rinsing with a weak solution of manganese, hydrogen peroxide, and an oily solution of retinol (vitamin A) is prescribed.

For the treatment of limited joint mobility, physiotherapy is mandatory: exercise therapy, therapeutic mud wraps, massage, mineral waters. If anemia is diagnosed, a complex of iron and cyanocobalamin is also prescribed.

Complications of scurvy

Delaying treatment for scurvy can cause secondary infections of the mouth, accompanied by a pungent odor, sores on the gums, and loosening of the teeth until they fall out.

Patients with a vitamin C deficiency have a yellowish-brown skin tone, a bumpy scalp, and move extremely slowly due to severe pain in the joints and muscles.

Scurvy causes digestive disorders, inhibits the work of the stomach and intestines, as a result of which the body does not produce the required amount of enzymes. The work of the heart also suffers from a lack of vitamin C – the pressure decreases, the pulse rises, and heart failure may appear.

History of the discovery of the disease

Avitaminosis - causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of vitamin deficiency. What is vitamin deficiency and how to deal with it?

Back in the Middle Ages, it was noted that the crusaders who went on long campaigns suffered from a strange disease, accompanied by skin and internal hemorrhages. Most often, the disease struck travelers who cross the sea for a long time, therefore it was called the sea mourning.

During the era of the great geographical discoveries, for obvious reasons, the incidence rate increased. The sailors were returning home from their round-the-world voyages as ailing invalids. According to research data, over 1 million sailors died from the scourge between 1600 and 1800. A strange disease also raged on land, usually it afflicted people in prisons, shelters, rural settlements and other places where food was scarce.

At first, the disease was thought to be infectious. But then the doctors noticed that the patients’ condition improved markedly after consuming citrus fruits. So, at the beginning of the 18th century, the fleet of European maritime states began to be supplied in preparation for each voyage with fruits, berries, sauerkraut. And only in the 20th century, scientists established that the cause of the disease is a lack of ascorbic acid in the body.

In past centuries, the geography of the disease was wide. Most often, scurvy suffered from sailors sailing in the northern seas. In Russia, the last outbreak of scurvy was recorded at the end of the 19th century. During the Second World War, the disease was periodically observed in the soldiers and residents of the besieged settlements. In some years, outbreaks of the disease were noted in Australia, countries of Europe and America, were associated with poor harvests and, as a result, lack of plant products.

The importance of vitamin C for the human body

Avitaminosis - causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of vitamin deficiency. What is vitamin deficiency and how to deal with it?

Ascorbic acid is one of the most important substances for the human body. Vitamin performs the following functions:

  • participates in the synthesis of collagen fibers necessary for the construction of cell membranes and vascular walls;
  • controls the delivery of glucose to tissues;
  • participates in the formation of the hormone serotonin, which normalizes the emotional state;
  • improves the condition of the intestinal microflora, stimulates the absorption of nutrients in the intestines.

In modern people, hypovitaminosis C develops with a poor diet, strict diets and prolonged hunger strikes, disruption of the intestinal tract. Often, scurvy appears in people who are deficient in vitamins D and B9, since vitamin C deficiency accompanies rickets and folic anemia.

Complications of the disease

If there is no treatment, then scurvy causes the following complications:

  • dystrophic changes in the myocardium;
  • profuse skin and internal ulcers;
  • infectious diseases associated with a lack of vitamin C;
  • jaundice;
  • intense muscle pain, due to which the patient cannot move;
  • increased likelihood of bone damage.

The lethal outcome is observed in severe cases of the disease, in acute vitamin deficiency and hemorrhages in the body, as well as in ignoring the treatment proposed by doctors.


In the absence of complications, even if the disease is severe, the prognosis is positive if correct treatment is provided. But if, with scurvy, the development of infectious pathologies is noted, then we can rarely talk about a favorable prognosis.

Correct selection of vitamins for vitamin deficiency

If you drink multivitamin complexes for therapeutic purposes, then they will not accumulate in the body. You should not be afraid of synthetic vitamins, since, unlike natural vitamins, there can be no allergies and other side reactions from them.

Today, multivitamins are chemically pure compounds that combine harmoniously with each other, and there is nothing wrong with them, which cannot be said about animal and herbal preparations. Therefore, with vitamin deficiency, drink multivitamin complexes and do not be afraid that the body will be harmed.

A wide selection of all kinds of vitamins can now be found on the market. To make them convenient to take, their release is made in different forms: lollipops, tablets, powder, pills, solutions.

Nevertheless, experts say that the capsule form is the most convenient form. So, this form of release contributes to the lesser likelihood of their joint neutralization. Moving through the intestines, the capsule loses its layers over time, in turn vitamins are absorbed in turn.

The most optimal time to take vitamins is in the morning, since at this time the body is just waking up and adjusting.

Most of the vitamins are absorbed only with food. You can not drink them with milk, coffee, carbonated drinks, as the assimilation will not be correct. If vitamins are in the form of capsules, then their intake should be carried out completely, without chewing.

The purpose of vitamins is to ensure the correct metabolism in the body, the process of cell renewal. The least difficulty arises with replenishment with ascorbic acid (vitamin C): its daily rate is 100 mg for an adult. Vitamin C is found in sufficient quantities in many fruits and vegetables. For example, you can make an infusion from pine needles all year round.

In the fruits of orchards and vegetable gardens there are whole complexes of vitamins, however, during their long-term storage of vitamins in them become less, and heat treatment sometimes completely destroys them. For this reason, fruits and vegetables are best eaten raw. The least gentle cooking method is steam cooking or microwave cooking. Fish and meat are best cooked in the same way.


Rating: 4.7

The German pharmaceutical company Bayer produces the drug Supradin. It contains 12 vitamins, which are supplemented with minerals, including rare elements. The drug Supradin is a full-fledged multivitamin complex that prevents the development of vitamin deficiencies, and also helps to compensate for the deficiency of nutrients when it appears. Approved for use by adults and children from 12 years old.

The release form of Supradin is oval, biconvex orange-red tablets. They are located on blisters. The package contains 30 or 60 tablets. Despite their size, they swallow quite easily due to their streamlined shape. Dosage regimen – 1 tablet per day during the main meal. It is recommended to drink it with a glass of clean water. The course of treatment is 1-2 months.

In reviews of Supradina, consumers note that this drug perfectly relieves such manifestations of vitamin deficiency as constant drowsiness, reduced performance, apathy, and frequent infection with colds. These vitamins are excellent in raising hemoglobin and improving other laboratory parameters. With them, the general well-being and appearance improves, the quality of sleep improves, and the concentration of attention increases.

AlfaVit Classic

The alphabet is a Russian biologically active food supplement containing 13 vitamins and 10 minerals. The drug is recommended as an additional source of macro- and microelements. Recipient of the national award “Brand No. 1 in Russia.” AlfaVit was developed by scientists taking into account the recommendations for separate intake of beneficial supplements. The complex consists of three tablets that must be used separately. This method improves their absorption by the body. This feature distinguishes AlfaVit from competitors.

Adults noted that after taking it, their health condition improved. Women especially praise the product for its effect on hair and nails. AlfaVit will be appreciated by people who follow the Gluten Free diet. The only inconvenient point is that you need to drink three tablets a day. However, this does not bother those who care about their health, especially in the spring, when the body is especially weakened.

Rules for taking pharmacy vitamins

There are a number of requirements for taking vitamins, the observance of which is simply necessary.

Vitamin capsules should be taken daily in the morning when the body is activated.

Some tablets need to be taken only with food, this should be mentioned in the instructions. However, this does not mean that vitamins can be taken with soda, milk and coffee, these liquids block the absorption of the drug.

Vitamins released in capsules do not need to be chewed or opened; they must be drunk whole with water. We must take them without chewing.

It is important to understand that fortification of the body is vital to support many organs and to feel good, but this does not guarantee complete recovery. Vitamins are able to support the body, not cure disease. Therefore, in case of serious

pathologies, you need to additionally take medications prescribed by a doctor to treat the disease. Excessive use of vitamin preparations can cause considerable harm and cause major disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract.

For treatment, it is important to adhere to the prescribed dosage. The daily dose may be different, it all depends on the degree of development of vitamin deficiency and the patient’s age. For children, the norm will be much less than for the elderly. In order for the treatment and intake of vitamins to bring maximum benefit, it is important to strictly adhere to the instructions and recommendations of the attending physician.

So, vitamin deficiency is a fairly common condition that develops due to a lack of vitamins in the body. A balanced diet, avoiding harmful products and taking pharmaceutical drugs will help normalize the level of vitamins and improve a person’s condition in the near future.

Proper nutrition

The best vitamins for spring vitamin deficiency can be obtained from vegetables and fruits. The main advantage of such a gradual replenishment of the deficiency of useful elements is the absence of contraindications and side effects. Doctors recommend identifying the weaknesses of the body (by symptoms) and starting to pointwise affect the immune system.

Where can you find the necessary vitamins for spring vitamin deficiency? We will divide prevention into groups of trace elements and available products:

  • milk, lean meat, fish are necessary to replenish the lack of enzymes responsible for the work of the digestive system, cellular respiration, metabolism (RR);
  • sunflower, olive oil, nuts, rosehip and sea buckthorn decoctions, mountain ash have anti-aging properties, they are able to maintain the health of hair, nails, skin (E);
  • green vegetables, cereals, kefir, fermented baked milk accelerate the production of hemoglobin, thereby protecting the body from negative external influences (B2);
  • flour from coarse wheat, various cereals (buckwheat, rice, oatmeal), cabbage support the functioning of the nervous system, contain a large amount of thiamine, which improves mood (B1);
  • tomatoes, carrots, bell peppers, pumpkin are considered a real storehouse of vitamins that help maintain vision in spring vitamin deficiency (A);
  • fish oil, seafood, liver, kidney, sour cream are recommended for children and the elderly to facilitate the processing of calcium (D).

The best vitamins for spring vitamin deficiency for men are found in citrus fruits, spinach, parsley, green peas, and sauerkraut. These foods help you stay sexually active and fight impotence.

Is hypervitaminosis?

Hypervitaminosis occurs when a person has an excess of vitamins in the body, and this condition leads to disruption of physiological processes. Hypervitaminosis most often occurs with the abuse of pharmacy vitamin and mineral complexes.

There are specific symptoms (corresponding to a certain vitamin), as well as non-specific (feeling unwell, weakness, lethargy, convulsions, loss of consciousness, allergic reactions, impaired conduction in the nervous system).

This disease is widespread, mainly in children, to whom parents like to give vitamins, without thinking about the consequences, about the dosage, about the compatibility of vitamins and microelements with each other. Treatment of hypervitaminosis is possible by stopping the intake of this vitamin, or reducing it to the daily requirement of the body, depending on age, weight, type of activity.

The fundamental difference between hypovitaminosis and vitamin deficiency

Many people do not understand what is the difference between a reduced amount and an almost complete absence of vitamin complexes. The conditions are characterized by a similar clinical picture and have a rather blurred border in diagnosis. However, these two diseases are different from each other, and patients should be aware of this.
Hypovitaminosis is a deficiency of one or another vitamin with a concentration of a substance below the declared normal limit. In this case, the patient develops specific manifestations, the origin of which is confirmed by laboratory diagnostics. The basis for the treatment of hypovitaminosis is the normalization of nutrition with increased consumption of foods containing a deficient type of vitamin.

Avitaminosis from hypovitaminosis differs in that it is the terminal stage of the disease. In such a situation, the body has a progressive lack of vitamins, which is not even minimally replenished.

Lack of treatment or replacement therapy for vitamin deficiency will lead to the complete disappearance of the biologically active substance from the body.

Avitaminosis is accompanied by a complete or decompensated shutdown of metabolic processes in which a specific vitamin is involved.

The consequences of a lack and an excess of vitamins in the body

Consequences of taking large amounts of vitamins:

  • Diarrhea;
  • Vomiting;
  • Persistent rash;
  • Diseases of the skin;
  • If the concentration of vitamin A is exceeded, there is a risk of fractures. Because this vitamin reduces bone density and can provoke a fracture of the hip, leg or collarbone;
  • An excess of vitamin D can cause serious liver problems, as well as skin color.

Therefore, it is also impossible to joke (exceed the dosage) with taking vitamin preparations.

Avitaminosis - causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of vitamin deficiency. What is vitamin deficiency and how to deal with it?

Vitamin and mineral complexes

The stability of their composition speaks of the benefits of vitamin and mineral complexes. Natural vitamins are 100% effective only under ideal conditions. That is, those where there is no sunlight, fluctuations in temperature and humidity, etc. Such an environment is very difficult to find in the house of an ordinary person. Therefore, one can only try to draw a conclusion about how much vitamins actually passes to the body from healthy carrots.

Vitamins are compounds that are complex in their chemical organization. They do not work alone, but only in combination with other substances, which are most often of a protein nature. Therefore, with protein starvation (excluding meat, eggs, dairy products from the menu), hypovitaminosis will not keep you waiting. And it is strictly forbidden to take vitamin preparations on an empty stomach.

Symptoms indicating a lack of vitamins in the body

The problem of studying symptoms is associated with the fact that it develops slowly, over a fairly long period of time. Problems begin at the level of biochemical processes, because they are directly related to dysfunction of the enzyme system, which, in turn, can only be detected in a specially designed laboratory.

In addition, a violation of the process of metabolism and absorption of vitamins can occur during the course of almost all infectious diseases.

Lack of vitamins, in certain cases, can be regarded as a very serious problem that can be fatal. Most people with disabilities of this kind can live for a fairly long amount of time, but the level of such a life cannot be called full.

Basically, the signs of a lack of vitamins in the body are quite similar, they can be:

  • constant fatigue
  • weakness and apathy
  • prostration

A deficiency in a particular vitamin can exhibit specific symptoms known to every educated physician. It should be understood that the signs of deficiency are the same for all groups of vitamins, and the symptoms of excess concern only the fat-soluble group (E, A, K, D).


To prevent vitamin deficiency, you need to formulate a diet where nutrients (calorie suppliers) will be balanced side by side with vitamin products.

Foods needed to prevent vitamin deficiency:

  • fresh vegetables, fruits and berries;
  • vegetable oils;
  • meat;
  • oily fish and seafood;
  • offal, including liver and brain;
  • animal fats;
  • fish fat;
  • nuts;
  • eggs;
  • milk and all dairy products;
  • cereals and beans;
  • bran and whole grain bread.

If it is not possible to consume all these products in sufficient quantities, it is necessary to take synthetic vitamins and multivitamin complexes.

Self-discovery of the problem

The issue of vitamin deficiency is especially acute in the autumn-winter period. It is during these seasons of the year that a person consumes least of all natural vegetables and fruits, and also reduces his exposure to the sun. It should be noted that the lack of vitamins has not only a detrimental effect on the entire body as a whole, but also noticeably worsens a person’s appearance. Indeed, to maintain all vital systems at the proper level, these elements are simply necessary.

Signs of a lack of vitamins in the body

The symptoms of vitamin deficiency are especially pronounced in the spring: during zimuganism it spends energy on the fight against viral and bacterial respiratory infections, there is a lack of sunlight, low temperatures.

For this reason, doctors recommend preventing the development of vitamin deficiency, taking complex drugs twice a year – in spring and autumn. Preventing vitamin deficiencies is easier than treating them afterwards.

Food does not always adequately cover the daily requirement for all the essential vitamins. It is especially important to monitor their health for women during pregnancy.

However, it should be remembered that an excess of some vitamins is no less dangerous than a deficiency. If there are signs of vitamin deficiency, it is worth consulting with a doctor who will establish the reasons, take an analysis for a lack of vitamins and coordinate further actions with the help of a specialist.

Correct and varied nutrition, adherence to work and rest, walking and physical activity will help maintain the body in a healthy state.

In case of complaints, signs of a lack of vitamins, one should turn to synthetic drugs, which are offered in large quantities by the pharmaceutical industry.

Daily allowance for an adult

Vitamin Dose

Beta carotene (provitamin A)

1000 mcg
D 12.5 mcg
FROM 60-90 mg
E 10-15 mg
TO 80-120 mcg
V1 1,5 mg
V2 1.8 mg
B5 5 mg
B6 2 mg
Sun 0.2 mg
B12 2-3 μg
RR 15-20 mg
H 30-100 mcg

Vitamin content table in food: how to prevent the lack of vitamins a, b, c, d, e, f, h, k, pp, p, n, u

What foods should you look for essential vitamins?

  • “BUT”:
    in citrus fruits and spinach, cod liver, butter, caviar and egg yolk, sorrel, sea buckthorn, green onions, cream, broccoli, cheese, asparagus, carrots.
  • C:
    in kiwi and citrus fruits, in cauliflower and broccoli, in green vegetables, bell peppers, apples and melon, in apricots, peaches, rose hips, herbs and black currants.
  • “D”:
    in fish oil, parsley and egg yolk, dairy products and butter, brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, milk.
  • “H”:
    in yolk, yeast, kidney and liver, mushrooms, spinach, beets and cabbage.
  • “E”:
    in vegetable oil and almonds, sea buckthorn, cereal germ, sweet pepper, peas, apple seeds.
  • “K”:
    in cabbage and tomatoes, pumpkin, legumes and grains, pork liver, lettuce, alfalfa, rose hips and nettles, in cauliflower, green vegetables.
  • “R”:
    in black currants and gooseberries, sweet cherries, cherries and cranberries.
  • “PP”:
    in liver, eggs, meat, herbs, nuts, fish, dates, rose hips, cereals, porcini mushrooms, yeast and sorrel.
  • B1:
    In unprocessed rice, rough bread, yeast, egg white, hazelnuts, oatmeal, beef and legumes.
  • B2:
    in broccoli, wheat germ, cheese, oats and rye, soybeans, in the liver.
  • “B3”:
    in eggs, yeast, sprouted grain.
  • “B5”:
    in chicken meat, heart and liver, mushrooms, yeast, beets, cauliflower and asparagus, fish, rice, legumes, beef.
  • “B6”:
    in cottage cheese and buckwheat, liver, potatoes, cod liver, yolk, heart, in milk, oysters, bananas, walnuts, avocados and corn, cabbage, salad, cabbage.
  • “B9”:
    in melon, dates, herbs, green peas, mushrooms, pumpkin, nuts and oranges, carrots, buckwheat, lettuce, fish, cheese and yolk, in milk, wholemeal flour.
  • “B12”:
    in seaweed, veal liver, soy, oysters, yeast, fish and beef, herring, cottage cheese.
  • “B12”:
    in kumis, milk, dairy products, liver, yeast.

Prevention of vitamin deficiency – real ways to prevent the condition

The best prevention is a balanced diet that includes foods rich in vitamins and minerals. To avoid vitamin deficiency, you need to be outside regularly, thus getting the necessary ultraviolet light. The dwelling should be well lit by sunlight.

We need to bring more movement into life, engage in physical education. Activity contributes to the production of nutrients and their better assimilation.

If you are going to be treated with drugs that destroy vitamins or impede their absorption in the intestines, you need to consult your doctor about what to do in this case.

Sources used and useful links on the topic: https: // simptomy—eto-chto-za-bolezn-prichinyi-simptomyi-lechenie-i- profilaktika-bolezni /info/vitaminy-pri-avitaminoze.html / v-organizme-zabolevaniya-pri-nedostatke-vitaminov.html

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