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Memo: what to do in case of a fire in a building. What to do in case of fire


The main damaging factors in a fire

– Open fire and high temperatures:
During the burning of buildings and objects, the air heats up to 800-1500 ° C, exceeding the maximum permissible temperatures for living organisms. Even as a result of short-term exposure to high temperatures (60-70 ° C), burns of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract are noted. Rehabilitation of such victims is complicated by constant pain, severe intoxication, nausea and vomiting. With a weakened immunity, infection and blood poisoning are possible.
– Smoke and lack of oxygen:
Smoke and toxic combustion products (carbon monoxide, aldehydes, phosgene) cause severe poisoning. Inhaling carbon monoxide, which is invisible and odorless, a person dies within minutes from oxygen starvation. In addition, the occurrence of panic, loss of orientation in space, difficulty or impossibility of evacuation is associated with smoke. In this regard, smoke is a greater danger than the fire itself – 80% of people in a fire die from poisoning by combustion products.
That is why not only and even not so much fire is dangerous, but smoke and fumes from it. It is necessary to take into account the possible reactions of the human body with an increase in the concentration of combustion products:
carbon monoxide: 0.01% – mild headaches; 0.05% – dizziness; 0.1% – fainting; 0.2% – coma, quick death; 0.5% – instant death;
carbon dioxide: up to 0.5% – no effect; from 0.5 to 7% – increased heart rate, the onset of paralysis of the respiratory centers; over 10% – paralysis of the respiratory centers and death.

Signs of a fire

According to statistics, the vast majority of dangerous fires occur through human fault. Much less often natural causes: for example, a lightning strike. The sooner you notice that a fire has started, the faster you will understand what to do to save and extinguish the flames. The main signs are:

  • growing smell of burning;
  • the appearance of a cutting eye of acrid smoke;
  • the smell of burning rubber;
  • reflections of a flame and crackling sound;
  • in the room, the bulbs begin to burn badly or completely go out.

A fire in any room (residential, public) and transport, as a rule, begins with the appearance of smoke, which at first is barely caught, and then becomes caustic, hurts the eyes. It is joined by the smell of burnt rubber that emanates from the burning electrical wiring. A little later, the lamps will become dimmer or the light will go out altogether.

In an open area, smoke may not be noticed (it depends on the direction of the wind, speed). It will smell like burning wood or grass.

The most characteristic signs of a fire are reflections of the flame, crackling and loud whistling sounds: it looks like wood is burning somewhere nearby in the stove.

Do not panic

The most dangerous thing in a fire is panic. You must remain calm and be smart about evacuation. Recall the approximate plan of the building, where the fire exits are located, how long it takes to get to them.

Are there any obstacles and dangers along the way?

Panic can provoke you to take rash actions that will threaten your life. Believe me, it’s better to spend 30-60 seconds to calm yourself down and think, than just run headlong into no one knows where.

First actions in case of fire

The earlier a fire source is detected, the more likely it is to extinguish it, preventing spreading. Therefore, the presence of the following signs should alert:

  • The appearance of a characteristic odor. Fire often starts with smoldering wiring, so the smell of burnt plastic can be a dangerous harbinger.
  • Turn off or dim lighting fixtures.
  • Sensation of smoke in the eyes, the appearance of visible thick smoke.
  • Sounds of crackling fire (sometimes characteristic odors do not spread through the house due to good ventilation, then the danger can only be determined by sound).

If one of these signs is found, de-energize the apartment and find the source of ignition. Then proceed in accordance with the order of actions in case of fire.

What to do in the event of a fire in a shopping center

An emergency exit can be found in any modern shopping center. That is why, in the event of a fire in a shopping center, you should do everything possible to quickly leave the confined space where you can get poisoned by smoke, and then follow the signs to the emergency exit.

How to extinguish small fires?

If oil catches fire on the stove

If oil or other flammable liquid ignites on the stove, turn off the stove first. Then put out the fire. It is best to use a dry powder fire extinguisher. But if not, cover the flame with a lid or wet, thick cloth. This will limit the access of oxygen to the fire site, and the fire will die down.

Never extinguish burning vegetable oils with water. This leads to a sharp ejection of the burning liquid and the spread of the flame throughout the room.

If an electrical appliance catches fire

It is strictly forbidden to extinguish electric appliances that have caught fire with water if they are plugged into an outlet. Water is a conductor of electric current.

De-energize the device first. If it can be safely approached, remove the plug from the outlet. If not, de-energize the apartment through the electrical panel.

Then throw a thick cloth over the ignited device. This will help limit the access of oxygen to the fire site. After that, you can begin to gently fill the device with water until the fire goes out. If the TV lights up, you need to fill it with water in small portions so that water does not get on the screen. In this case, you need to stand on the side, as the TV screen may explode.

While the appliance is burning, do not open the window – fresh air will only intensify the fire. But after the device is extinguished, you need to remove all people from the room and ventilate well. Appliances that catch fire can release substances hazardous to breathing.

If the wiring caught fire

Water and electrical wires are not compatible. Therefore, in no case extinguish the ignited wiring with water.

First, turn off the package switch on the electrical panel (switch, switch) or remove the electrical plugs.

It is best to extinguish the wiring with a dry powder fire extinguisher. But if it is not at hand, you can cover the fire with earth (for example, from flower pots), washing powder. You can also knock down the flames with a wet, thick cloth, but only if you are sure that the wires are de-energized.

If furniture caught fire

It is best to extinguish any fire with a dry powder extinguisher. But if it is not there, you can use water. You can fill it in pots or buckets, but this is time-consuming. Better to wet the cloth and try to knock down the flame with it. Also, the fire site can be covered with washing powder or earth. If the area of ​​the ignited surface is not very large, you can throw a dense cloth over the fire site – this will help reduce the access of oxygen to the flame, which will prevent it from flaring up. But the fabric should not be flammable – wool, synthetics will not work. Use a sheet or bath towel.

If a fire occurs in the forest

The most common way to extinguish small fires in a forest is to overwhelm the edge of the fire. For this, green (not dry!) ​​Tree branches are used. You can also cover the fire with soil. This will cool the burning materials and prevent them from accessing oxygen.

What to do in case of fire in public transport

Vehicle fires often occur. The most common causes are faulty wiring or machinery, as well as road accidents. The main danger of such fires is the suddenness and rapid spread of the flame. Therefore, the driver does not have time to think about the situation or wait for the fire brigade.

The driver’s action memo is as follows:

  1. Stop the car;
  2. drop off passengers;
  3. try to extinguish the fire yourself using a fire extinguisher;
  4. leave the vehicle and move to a safe distance.

If a fire breaks out in public transport, passengers should immediately notify the driver of this and leave the vehicle through the emergency exits. If primary extinguishing media are available, use them as directed.

How to get out

The worst thing in a fire is not fire, but smoke and carbon monoxide. It is from them that the overwhelming number of victims of fires perishes. If you are trying to go outside from a building and see smoke, protect your respiratory tract immediately. Make a cloth bandage – a T-shirt, scarf, any clean rag will do.

Dampen the cloth with plenty of water. If water is not available, use your own urine. When passing through smoke-filled areas, breathe only through the bandage to avoid suffocation and loss of consciousness. If the smoke is not visible more than ten meters, it is deadly to pass through it without protective equipment.

The smoke spreads up to 20 meters per minute. The danger is posed by its components – in particular, carbon monoxide. When the gas is inhaled, oxygen is displaced from a person’s blood. The person loses consciousness and dies from suffocation. Paralysis of the respiratory centers is inevitable with a carbon monoxide concentration of 0.5%.

Ensure respiratory safety

The most dangerous thing in a fire is not fire, but smoke and carbon monoxide. They spread much faster than fire. The smoke can cause burns to the respiratory tract and internal organs.

Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause weakness, unconsciousness, and death. At the same time, carbon monoxide is odorless and colorless. You will not realize that you are breathing it until you feel bad.

In order to ensure minimum respiratory safety, breathe through a piece of cloth. This could be your clothes, folded in several layers. It is better if this fabric is damp. If possible, moisten it with water.

What to do in a school fire

The main fire threat in the school is panic. Children do not yet know how to control their emotions and feelings well enough, therefore, during an emergency situation, they experience fear and panic begins. That is why in the event of a fire in a school, you need to move away from the crowd as soon as possible and try to find an alternative way out of the building so as not to get into a crush.

What to do in case of strong smoke in the room

Poisoning by combustion products is very dangerous. According to statistics, more people die from it in a fire than from burns and other contacts with flames. What to do in case of heavy smoke:

  1. Close windows and doors, plug the cracks with thick damp cloths. Any draft increases the flow of smoke into the room. If possible, it is advisable to cover the ventilation openings.
  2. Protect the respiratory tract by covering your nose and mouth with a wet natural cloth (linen, cotton). Experts recommend: if there is no water at hand, soak something from your clothes with your own urine. A scarf, a hem of a dress, a sleeve of a sweater will do. Urine is a much more reliable filter for combustion products than water, and it protects you much better from poisoning.
  3. Leaning as low as possible, move towards the exit. You can move on all fours or crawl.
  4. After getting out of a smoky environment, seek medical attention as soon as possible.

How to behave if you cannot extinguish the fire yourself?

In an apartment building

You need to act as quickly as possible. Call the firefighters first.

If a fire starts and spreads in one of the rooms, slam the door leading into it. Cover all cracks with rags. Water the door with water. This will help keep the fire and smoke from spreading to other rooms for some time.

If the smoke still spreads, leave the apartment urgently. Combustion products and carbon monoxide are toxic. Inhaling them, a person can lose consciousness after two to three minutes. Remember, in an apartment building, fire spreads upward, not downward. Smoke also rises upward, so it’s best to bend as low as possible or crawl out on all fours. If you have self-rescuers (mini gas masks) in your home, use them. If not, apply a wet cloth to the respiratory system. If it is not possible to wet a rag, use at least a dry one.

Take money and documents with you only if you do not need to look for them.

Notify the neighbors, help the children and the elderly to get out. If possible, meet firefighters to tell them what information you have about the fire. Do not use the elevator under any circumstances – it can be turned off and you will be trapped.

If the way down is cut off by fire, try to go to the balcony – here the rescuers will find you faster. Do not open the door wide – fresh air will add strength to the fire. If possible, use the fire escape. You can also make yourself felt through the window window of a room not engulfed in fire. As soon as you realize that you have been heard, close the window and lie down on the floor.

If you were saved or you saved yourself, notify as many people as possible (neighbors, better rescuers). This way, firefighters will not waste extra time looking for you in a burning room.

In a public place

If you notice signs of a fire (smoke, sparks, flames, the smell of burnt electrical insulation), you need to act as quickly as possible. Without creating panic, report the incident to the staff. Call firefighters or have them called by staff.

Leave the building, following the instructions of the personnel and the evacuation plan. Try to take as many people as possible with you. Help children and the elderly. Don’t panic or succumb to it.

During a fire, it is strictly forbidden to use the elevators.

Protect the respiratory system with a cloth. Try to breathe less frequently. Inhaling toxic combustion products, a person can lose consciousness after two to three minutes. The smoke rises upward, so in case of strong smoke, look for a way out by bending over or on all fours.

Remember that fire spreads from bottom to top. If the path down is cut off by smoke or fire, make your way to the windows. The windows must not be opened wide – fresh air intensifies the fire. You can draw attention to yourself with a bright rag. As soon as you are sure that you are noticed, lie on the floor and wait for the rescuers – there is less smoke.


If you find yourself near a forest fire, call the firefighters. Objectively assess the situation: if you cannot prevent the spread of fire, get out of the forest yourself and take people out of there. It is important to go out to meet the firefighters and tell them all possible details: how to get to the fire as quickly as possible, are there people there, and so on.

If children are with you

Parents should lead their children behind their backs, holding the hand tightly. A small child can be strapped to the back or chest. If there is smoke in the room, make sure that the child breathes only through a cloth soaked in liquid. Remember that there is less carbon monoxide near the floor as it goes up. If necessary, you can crawl on all fours.

If evacuation takes place in a tight group, sit the child on the neck or hold it in your arms. Hands need to be bent at the elbows, fingers clenched into a fist. To free up space in front of you, you should move the body back a little. At any cost, stay on your feet – in the crush, a fallen person can easily be trampled.

In the underground

1. If a fire catches you in a subway car, try to extinguish the fire. Close windows, breathe through fabric, use a fire extinguisher or other available means: thick clothing and alcohol-free drinks.

2. Using the intercom, inform the driver about the situation.

3. If the fire gets out of control, move away from it, go down and wait for a stop. Do not use the stop crane: the train is moving at high speed and you will quickly reach the station where you can get help.

4. If the train gets stuck in the middle of the tunnel, wait for the driver’s message that the tracks are de-energized. Squeeze or smash the windows and leave the carriage while helping the others. Then head between the rails in the direction of the train.

If it is impossible to leave the burning room

It is important to know what to do in the event of a fire in the apartment, if the fire blocked the exit. You need to go to the balcony and close the door tightly. Now the fire victim’s task is to shout as loudly as possible to passers-by and call for help.

If the house does not have a balcony, you cannot panic! Report the danger in any possible way: by phone, from the window. Then close the window and snuggle to the floor while waiting for help (there is less smoke at the bottom). The fire brigade arrives at the scene promptly, so be patient.

Memo: what to do in case of a fire in a building. What to do in case of fire

If possible, head to the room farthest from the fire. To make sure that there is no fire behind a closed door, you need to touch its surface or an iron handle. If it’s not hot, then you can go in.

How to provide first aid to a fire victim?

In case of burns: apply a cold damp cloth (preferably a sterile bandage or wipes) or moisten the burned area with cold water. Pure snow can be applied. Do not lubricate burns with various ointments. If anything sticks to the burn, do not try to remove the foreign object until the doctors arrive.

In case of poisoning with combustion products: you need to take the person out into fresh air and free the neck and chest from the embarrassing clothes, then you need to let the ammonia sniff.

If necessary, artificial respiration and chest compressions should be given. Be sure to call an ambulance: from a landline phone at 03 and 103; from a mobile phone (for all operators) at 103.

How to protect yourself from a fire in a summer cottage in the forest?

Outside the city, forest fires often occur due to human fault. Actions in the event of a forest fire are different from those in the event of a fire in a room. A forest fire is dangerous with a wide fire site. A person can die not from a flame, but from strong smoke.

A dangerous place should be quickly left by going to the road, the edge, to the reservoir. You need to go against the wind, which drives the flame in the other direction. If a person is surrounded by flames, you should try to inform the rescuers about yourself. For safety, you need to hide at the edge or enter the reservoir.

Actions in the event of a fire in your apartment

– Never panic.
– Report the fire to the fire brigade by phones “112”, “01” (from cell phone 01 *, 112).
See the post “emergency call”:.
Emergency call
– if there is no danger of electric shock, proceed to extinguish the fire with water or use a thick (wet cloth).
– When the danger of electric shock, disconnect the electric power.
– Flammable liquid extinguished with water can not (cook bulk substances: detergent, earth for flowers, fire extinguisher, if not available, cover with a thick cloth soaked in water.)
– In case of fire, never open the vents and windows.
– If you are unable to extinguish the fire on your own, leave the apartment, closing all the doors behind you (closed doors slow down the spread), and immediately report the fire to the neighbors and residents above / below the apartments.
– Meet the firefighters and escort them to the fire site.
– At high temperatures, strong smoke, it is necessary to crawl, since the temperature near the floor is much lower and there is more oxygen.
– If it is impossible to evacuate from the apartment through the landing, when the escape routes are cut off, you must go to the balcony, closing the door behind you, and call for help from passers-by. You can draw attention with a bright fabric (blanket, bedspread, towel), hanging it or waving it.
– If you cannot get out of bed, try to attract the attention of neighbors or passers-by: knock on the radiator, on the floor, walls, call for help, throw some object out the window.

In the plane

1. If you are the first to spot a fire on board, notify the crew as soon as possible. Do not panic and follow the instructions given by the personnel.

2. Use a cloth soaked in any non-flammable liquid to protect the respiratory tract from smoke.

3. Do not try to break the window glass or open the door during the flight: this can lead to depressurization of the cabin and an accident.

4. After waiting for an emergency landing, on command go to the exit near the wing. Don’t push. If the aisle in the cabin is full of people, move through the seats.

5. Do not think about valuable things, save your own and other people’s lives.

Actions in the event of a fire: when a person caught fire

It happens that a person’s clothing flashes on, for example, in an accident or careless handling of fire. The first reaction of the victim in such cases is often incorrect. A person begins to run and rush, which, on the contrary, contributes to the flare-up of the flame.

The correct procedure is as follows:

  • Lay the burning person in a horizontal position;
  • put out the fire with snow, earth, water, or cover the victim with a thick blanket or cloth, leaving only the head uncovered;
  • if possible, eliminate burning clothing;
  • if the methods described do not help, then roll the person on fire on the ground.

It is forbidden to press burning clothes to the victim’s body – this will provoke an even greater burn on the skin.

Memo: what to do in case of a fire in a building. What to do in case of fire

If a person is alone during a fire, he will have to save himself on his own. The action memo in this case is as follows:

  • Take off burning clothes;
  • if you cannot get rid of burning things, then fall to the ground and roll until the fire is eliminated;
  • if there is water or snow nearby, you need to rush there.

No matter how hot or scary it is, you shouldn’t run. This will only intensify the burning of the fire.

What to do if you inhale smoke during a fire

If the victim inhaled smoke, then he needs to get rid of clothes that make breathing difficult as soon as possible, and then go out into the open air. After that, you should seek medical attention.

If you act competently and reasonably, then no fire can cause harm. The main thing is not to panic or hesitate. Only in this case can you leave safe and sound.

What shouldn’t you do yourself?

Correct behavior during a fire increases the chances of escape. Rescuers recommend not to panic, but there should be no heroism either. If a curtain or an electrical appliance is on fire, then a person can put out the flame on his own. But if the fire spreads quickly and covers the entire room, then you should not play as a rescuer. Better to help the others get out and leave the fire zone yourself, and then call the firefighters.

If the path is blocked, and you cannot extinguish the flame on your own, then you need to save yourself from carbon monoxide. To do this, seal all the cracks with a wet cloth. Do not break glass or open a window, as oxygen only contributes to a fire. The window can only be opened when all slots are closed.

Conclusion on the topic

Instruction on the actions of employees in case of fire is a document signed by the head of the enterprise. Thus, the importance of the points fixed in it is emphasized. Therefore, they are carefully studied during fire safety briefings. And the latter are held every month or at least once a quarter. And during this time, all the points can be learned by heart. Although there is nothing complicated about them.

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