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Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies



A key element of eczema therapy is ointments and creams. This is explained by the peculiarities of the disease: eczema is localized on the skin, so it is possible, using topical (local) dosage forms, to deliver the active substance directly to the focus of the pathological process.

There are three main types of ointments used in the treatment of eczema:

  1. Hormonal.
  2. Non-hormonal.
  3. Combined.

Hormonal ointments

The composition of ointments from the first group includes synthetic analogues of glucocorticoid hormones. They have a strong anti-inflammatory effect, effectively eliminate itching, which is one of the leading symptoms of eczema.

The disadvantages of hormonal ointments for eczema are:

  • the development of addiction, which reduces their effectiveness with prolonged use;
  • the likelihood of serious side effects due to absorption into the blood;
  • undesirability of use for fungal eczema.

Conditionally hormonal ointments for eczema can be divided into several groups according to the strength of the action.

Weak hormonal ointments (class I). These include 0.5% prednisolone ointment and Locoid cream, they are used in children and pregnant women, as well as for small eczematous foci on the face and neck.

For eczema on the face, glucocorticoid ointments with a weak effect are used. This allows you to avoid unpleasant complications in the form of skin atrophy.

Ointments with moderate action (class II). Representatives: Tsinakort, Afloderm. These ointments are prescribed when the first group is ineffective, with a more common inflammatory process. Apply them to the delicate skin of the face and neck with care.

Strong ointments (class III). Prescribed by doctors in the persistent course of the disease, to quickly get rid of painful symptoms. Advantan and Sinaflan are classic potent topical glucocorticoids. They are prescribed for occupational, allergic and idiopathic eczema of moderate severity.

Super strong ointments (class IV). This group includes Soderm – an ointment with a powerful glucocorticoid effect. It is used only in very short courses, as it can cause skin atrophy.

Consequences of prolonged use of hormonal ointment. Focuses of atrophy are clearly visible in places where previously there were eczematous foci.Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

A specific hormonal ointment is chosen by a dermatologist, taking into account the characteristics of the course of the disease and the presence of contraindications. Common to all hormonal ointments is the undesirability of using them for mycotic eczema, since glucocorticoids contribute to the mutation of fungi and the emergence of strains resistant to antibiotic therapy. When prescribing a hormonal ointment, a stepwise approach is followed: first, they try treatment with weak ointments, changing them to stronger ones if the previous group is not effective enough.

Hormonal ointments should not be used prophylactically – they are used in the acute period of eczema.

Non-hormonal ointments for eczema

Non-hormonal ointments for eczema include a variety of mono- and multicomponent remedies, the task of which is to soften the skin, soften the stratum corneum, fight itching and infection (fungi and bacteria).

Ointments without glucocorticoids are used to treat eczema with a mild inflammatory component, to treat uncomplicated forms. Purpose of application: to reduce the intensity of itching. Prevention of seeding by microorganisms, softening of the skin, activation / s skin regeneration.

Non-hormonal ointments can be used much more often and for a longer time. Usually they are applied to clean skin up to 4 times a day, the course of treatment can last up to 3-4 weeks.

The most commonly used ointments for eczema are:

  • Boron-naphthalan. The components included in the composition have a softening, moderate antiseptic effect. After being absorbed into the skin, after a few minutes, a drying effect is noted due to the zinc included in the composition.

  • Salicylic. It has a pronounced keratolytic effect – it softens callus-like formations that occur with prolonged recurrent eczema.

  • Skin cap. Helps with dry eczema by softening the skin and stimulating the healing of microcracks. It also has a mild antifungal and antibacterial effect. It has a minimum of side effects, it is usually used in courses of 1.5-2 weeks.

  • Ointments with silver (Argosulfan, Ebermin, Dermazin). Due to the content of silver ions in them, these drugs have some antibacterial effect, but at the same time they are devoid of disadvantages in the form of side effects of antibiotics. Silver-containing ointments have a pronounced regenerative effect. They are especially useful for traumatic and varicose eczema.

Combined ointments

Ointments and creams have been developed that contain several active components at once, one of which is a glucocorticoid hormone, and the other is an antibiotic or antimycotic (antifungal drug). The combination of several drugs in one dosage form allows you to optimize the treatment – you can limit yourself to applying only one ointment containing the necessary components, and not alternate the application of several funds.

There are many trade names for combined ointments: Triderm, Akriderm GK, Akriderm Genta, Aurobin and others. The choice of ointment should take into account the shape of the eczema.

With microbial eczema, it is necessary to use ointments with an antibacterial component. In case of mycotic eczema, the use of hormonal ointments should be limited, but combined drugs in some situations are allowed to be used – the doctor makes the final decision. With varicose eczema, the application of a three-component ointment has a prophylactic value – it reduces the risk of attaching fungal flora.

Factors provoking eczema

Eczema is the most common type of dermatitis, an inflammation of the skin. This disease develops in the body under the influence of various factors:

  • immune failures,
  • heredity (relatives suffered from various allergies),
  • problems with the gastrointestinal tract, liver,
  • cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder),
  • caries, sinusitis, tonsillitis and other diseases that deplete the immune system,
  • stress, depression, exhaustion of the nervous system,
  • hormonal disorders
  • allergy to chemicals (for example, in hazardous industries),
  • allergies to house dust, medicines, pollen, household chemicals, building materials (for example, linoleum),
  • hypersensitivity to certain foods,
  • atopic dermatitis and diathesis (in children).

In fact, if a person has been sick for more than a year, it is quite difficult to identify one cause of the disease. Let’s say stress was the primary cause. But he also caused a decrease in immunity, then problems with the gastrointestinal tract joined, since long-term medication negatively affects the body.

It turns out a whole tangle of reasons, which are all interconnected with each other.

Therefore, for effective treatment, it is not so important what exactly triggered the disease. It is important to find a comprehensive treatment method that will improve the body’s work on all fronts: the gastrointestinal tract, and immunity, and the nervous system.


The most famous hormonal drug belonging to the group of glucocorticosteroids. Effectively removes signs of eczema on hands, nails, and legs. Available in the form of an ointment, tablets, injection solution and drops. Its strong anti-inflammatory and anti-shock properties are noted. It completely or partially eliminates the high sensitivity of the body to the allergen, suppresses the immune system. It is prescribed not only for the treatment of eczema, but also for seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, lupus erythematosus and other diseases. The drug instantly stops itching, reduces vascular permeability, inhibits the formation of exudate.

The injection of Prednisolone is due to the need to quickly eliminate the shock state, stop the development of a severe form of the disease, relieve cerebral edema, asthma attack. The tablets are recommended for long-term hormone therapy associated with rheumatoid arthritis, hepatitis, coma. Reception of them is strictly regulated, and should fall on a period of time from 6 to 8 in the morning. It is taken with breakfast or after meals. Usually the daily dose is divided by 2-4 times, but most of it is taken in the morning. They start with a daily norm of 20-30 mg, then they carry out supportive therapy and consume no more than 10 mg per day. Cancellation of the drug is carried out according to the scheme developed by the doctor, and takes place under his control.

Stages of development of eczema

Stage 1 (Erythematous) – skin redness, itching;
Stage 2 (Papulovesicular) – rashes, the appearance of bubbles with liquid;
Stage 3 (Wet eczema) – the bubbles burst, serous wells are formed, which secrete serous fluid;
Stage 4 (Cortical or dry eczema) – serous wells and near-well areas of the skin are covered with a dry crust of a grayish-yellow hue. At the same time, in other places, new foci of the disease may appear, starting from the first stage. Thus, over time, more and more areas of the body are affected.

Varieties of pathology

Depending on the causative factor and the nature of the manifestation, eczema on the hands is divided into several types. Below are the most common ones.

Table. The main types of eczema.

Pathology type Description

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies


It rarely occurs on the skin of fingers and hands. The main reason for the development of microbial eczema is the advanced form of mycosis of the palms. Pathology is accompanied by peeling of the skin, the appearance of a yellow crust and bubbles with purulent fluid.

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies


This type of eczema develops gradually, has a clearly pronounced connection with the negative effects of external factors, including aggressive substances. In most cases, eczema affects only the tips of the fingers, but sometimes the focus of pathology can spread to the entire hand.

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies


It is accompanied by a rash on the fingers or hands. In the absence of proper treatment, dyshidrotic eczema can become chronic, which will lead to the appearance of additional symptoms (burning and itching between the fingers).

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies


The disease manifests itself acutely: vesicles, itchy cracks and redness appear on the affected areas of the patient’s skin. But with the transition of true eczema of the hands to a chronic form, the edema intensifies, and ulcers appear on the affected areas. Without comprehensive treatment, the disease can bother a person for several years.

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies


| In medicine, this form of eczema is also called mycoic. The main factor provoking the development of the disease is a fungus in the nail area. Fungal eczema is infectious in nature, so it can easily spread to other people through contact. |

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

The main forms of eczema

Depending on the nature of the rash and the clinical manifestations between the fingers, eczema can be wet or dry. Let’s consider the types of pathology separately:

  • weeping. In addition to swelling and redness of the skin, small bubbles appear on the hands, in the place of which, after opening, erosion remains – pathological foci on the skin, from which purulent contents are released. Over time, crusts appear on the affected skin;
  • dry. The affected areas of the skin thicken and coarse, resulting in small, but very painful cracks. Also, dry eczema is accompanied by the appearance of papules – a rash in the form of nodules. As a rule, with dry eczema, no erosion or blistering occurs, and the disease itself develops gradually. According to statistics, dry eczema on the hands is diagnosed much more often than weeping.

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

Features of the development of dry eczema

The classification into dry and weeping eczema is a conditional division, since many types of the disease at different stages of development can be dry or weeping.

Local drug therapy

Various aqueous solutions, powders, suspensions, pastes and ointments are shown. The choice of a specific dosage form and method for local treatment of eczema on the hands is determined by the type of eczema and is based on the prevalence, localization and severity of inflammatory elements.

Microbial eczema – with this type of skin lesion on cortical formations, the following solutions are applied to pustules:

  • Dyes – “brilliant green”, solution of gentian violet, methyl violet
  • It is possible to use aerosols and creams of polcortolone, panthenol, levovinisole (see the list of ointments and creams for dermatitis)
  • In extreme cases, a short course of treatment in the form of lotions with solutions of ethacridine lactate, resorcinol

For limited forms of eczema, for example, of the hands, mild astringents and itching formulations with an anti-inflammatory effect in the form of bandages or lotions are shown: Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

  • Burov’s fluid
  • lead water
  • resorcinol solution 1–2%
  • zinc or copper sulfate solution 0.1%
  • silver nitrate solution 0.25%
  • 2-5% phenol solution
  • 0.5-1.0% menthol solution
  • citric acid solution 1%
  • podophyllin ointment for eczema on hands 0.1%
  • diphenhydramine paste 2–5%

In the case of an acutely proceeding process, powders made of white clay, zinc oxide, and wheat starch have a good effect. After the acute phase subsides, indifferent pastes and ointments, zinc oil are prescribed.

If there is edema, oozing, erythematous lesions, the presence of erosion, in addition to resorcinol, use lotions from solutions of halascorbin, boric acid, tannin, from medicinal herbs – decoctions of St. John’s wort, chamomile.

When the acute inflammatory process begins to subside, mixtures are used – Lassar paste, zinc paste, it is possible to add additional antipruritic, antiseptic agents, such as naphthalan paste, ichthyol paste, boric-zinc paste. In the case of chronic eczema on the hands, the following ointments can be added to zinc ointment – boron-naphthalan, methyluracil, dermatol, which enhance the anti-inflammatory effect.

Also, according to indications, corticosteroid ointments for eczema on the hands are used, among which Elokom, Skin-cap (it contains a powerful corticosteroid drug, which is not indicated in the instructions), Celestoderm, Advantan, Flucinar (see the complete list of all hormonal ointments with their side effects in the article hormonal ointments for psoriasis). With microbial eczema, it is better to use not pure hormonal ointments, but with the addition of antimycotics, antibiotics or antiseptics – Lorinden C, Celestoderm with garamycin, Trimistin, Travocort, Kremgen.

Physiotherapy procedures

Physiotherapy techniques help resolve inflammatory elements and are an important part of treatment. Applicable:Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

  • 2-4-chamber baths
  • dry radon baths, mineral water baths
  • aerotherapy, electrosleep
  • diphenhydramine inhalation
  • general galvanization
  • diadynamotherapy
  • segmental ultrasound exposure
  • ultraviolet radiation
  • ultraphonophoresis of external drugs
  • mud therapy, ozokeritotherapy
  • laser therapy, ozone therapy
  • low frequency magnetic field
  • acupuncture
  • paraffin applications

Diet therapy

It is recommended to give up spicy and salty foods, strong meat broths, egg whites, fried meat, game, smoked meats, canned foods, cheeses, sausages, spices, coffee, chocolate, alcoholic beverages. The preparation of protein products (meat, fish) should be carried out in a dietary manner. In general, a light dairy-plant diet is shown.

Folk remedies for eczema

When there is eczema on the hands, folk remedies are very effective and are used as an addition to the main treatment or act as an alternative to such treatment if it is ineffective.

  • Salt baths

Dry hand eczema can be treated well with salt water. Salt (preferably sea salt) is added to hot water, about 2 tablespoons per 1 liter of water. Such baths for eczema on the hands are done in a basin with a solution and are there until the water cools down. You can do this procedure daily until there is a noticeable improvement.

  • Home emulsion

Homemade emulsion helps with weeping eczema. One chicken egg is driven into a small jar, 50 ml of vinegar (table) and water are added. Then this mixture is thoroughly mixed to form an emulsion. With this mixture, the affected skin areas are lubricated at night and covered with a cloth on top. In the morning, the dried film cannot be washed off, and in the evening it is necessary to repeat the procedure. For about a week, weeping is allowed and dry skin peels off.

  • Kalanchoe juice

The juice of Kalanchoe officinalis has a good healing effect, which should be regularly lubricated with the affected skin.

  • Mother and stepmother

Mother-and-stepmother helps to relieve unpleasant symptoms in the form of itching and to treat eczema, which needs to be passed through a meat grinder and added to it fresh milk. The affected areas are smeared with the resulting composition overnight and escaped with cellophane. Relief comes after 2-3 procedures.

Anti-relapse treatment and prevention of exacerbations

During the period of remission, a course of treatment with histoglobulin is carried out. Impeccable adherence to the rules of personal hygiene and timely treatment of intercurrent diseases are important. Dieting helps to significantly prolong the period of remission. The affected areas of the skin must be protected from any negative effects, both during household chores and in production.

Acupuncture for eczema

Does acupuncture help with eczema? Yes, because eczema is not a purely external disease, it is a consequence of an imbalance in the body. And the needles, as I have already said, act not only locally, but also improve the work of the entire system of internal organs, including the gastrointestinal tract.

Various chemical processes are launched, the central nervous system comes into balance. All this gives a good effect, not only relieves symptoms, but helps to heal.

Recently studied a 2010 American study on eczema. It suggests that acupuncture is an effective treatment for itching in people with eczema. But my daily experience also proves this to me.

Here’s one example. I saw a woman who had suffered from eczema on her hands and feet for many years. After 10 acupuncture sessions, she felt much better. You can see the results yourself in the photo.

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

Features of treatment in children and pregnant women

Therapy for eczema on the fingers during pregnancy is slightly different from the standard scheme, since the immune system of the expectant mother is weakened. The same can be said about young children whose immunity has not yet fully developed. First of all, it is necessary to make some adjustments to the diet of the child and the expectant mother, limiting or completely excluding fermented milk products, green vegetables and fruits. Also, children are not recommended to eat spicy, smoked and fatty foods, flour products and carbonated drinks.

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

Treatment for eczema during pregnancy is prescribed by a specialist

To strengthen the immunity of pregnant women, doctors prescribe special vitamin complexes. For the period of therapy, if possible, it is recommended to completely exclude all kinds of contacts with household chemicals. During pregnancy, dermatotropic and antihistamines are used, for example, Sudocrem or Bepanten.

For eczema in children, doctors prescribe the following drugs:

  • lotions using “Boric acid” or “Furacilin”;
  • the use of calcium-containing drugs (with eczema in the child’s body, the level of this microelement decreases);
  • the use of external agents containing antibiotics (most often “Lorinden” is prescribed);
  • to eliminate itching or reduce its activity, antihistamines are used (“Zirtek”, “Fenistil” and others).

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

Eczema on the fingers in children

Treatment of eczema in childhood or pregnancy is not only about the use of prescribed drugs. During the period of therapy, it is also necessary to maintain an optimal sanitary condition of the apartment and observe the rules of personal hygiene.

How to cure eczema forever?

The therapy regimen directly depends on the cause that provoked this pathology, and the degree of its development. For example, with a mild stage of the disease, only external agents can be used to combat the disease. More often, such a pathology is treated with antibacterial and hormonal drugs. How to treat eczema, in each case, the doctor decides individually. Before prescribing therapy, the specialist directs the patient to a diagnostic study.

During the period of exacerbation of the disease, in addition to medication, physiotherapeutic treatment is also prescribed. At the same time, the most popular are the following procedures:

  • electrophoresis;
  • phototherapy;
  • electrosleep;
  • PUVA therapy
  • laser investment;
  • magnetic therapy.

Diagnosis of eczema on the hands

There are no difficulties in making a diagnosis when typical signs of the disease appear. The doctor will conduct a visual examination, collect anamnesis, find out all sorts of factors that may be the precursors of the disease. After that, the doctor examines the affected skin.

If necessary, the patient can be assigned additional diagnostic procedures:

  • histological examination;
  • skin biopsy;
  • determination of the total level of IgE in serum;
  • general analysis of blood and urine;
  • blood chemistry;
  • consultation with specialists such as an endocrinologist, neurologist, gastroenterologist, and allergist may be required.

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

Allergic tests for eczema

If you suspect eczema, it is recommended to do an allergy test, which will determine which substances or products provoke such a reaction. After an accurate diagnosis has been made, it will be possible to prescribe a course of treatment, thanks to which the patient will be able to get rid of the disease as soon as possible.

Diet and nutrition for eczema

Any food allergen can provoke, in some cases, the development of eczema, and what is extremely undesirable for one is perfectly tolerated by others. For this reason, the diet should be selected strictly individually, excluding those products that provoke an exacerbation of eczema in a particular patient.

The usual frequency of food intake for eczema is from 4 to 6 times in small portions.

In order to identify foods that cause exacerbation, it is necessary to keep a food diary for some time, where you write down not only everything that is eaten and drunk during the day, but also the body’s reaction during the next 2 days. After analyzing the relevant records, “calculating” the guilty product of labor does not amount to much. Such products should be completely excluded from the diet and not even used in combination with others, for example, in the preparation of salads or as one of the components of baked goods. The duration of such a strict diet is about 1 year, after which the body usually “forgets” the allergen and does not react with inflammation to its presence in food.

The most common allergens to animal products are:

  • bird,
  • seafood,
  • caviar,
  • a fish,
  • eggs,
  • milk (including goat).

Herbal products containing allergens:

  1. Cereals: corn, barley, rye, wheat.
  2. Nuts.
  3. Legumes: peas, soybeans, beans, lentils.
  4. Vegetables, fruits of red, yellow or orange color: citrus fruits, melon, persimmon, apricot, peach, watermelon, carrots, beets, strawberries, strawberries, raspberries, currants, pomegranates, grapes, tomatoes.
  5. Chocolate: candy, cocoa.
  6. Other products: kiwi, garlic, avocado, radish, horseradish, mushrooms, eggplant, radish, chestnut, spices, ketchup, mayonnaise, smoked meats, caramel, pickles, butter dough, honey, coffee, mustard, vinegar, cheeses, kvass, etc. P.

When compiling a hypoallergenic diet, it must be remembered that there is a so-called cross-allergy, when the use of one product causes an allergic reaction when eating others:

  • milk – beef – digestive enzymes,
  • pollen – fruits – berries.
  • Mold (for example, in cheese) – kefir – various cheeses – yeast baked goods – last year’s fruits.

In this case, if an allergy is detected, say, to pollen, then it is necessary to exclude or sharply limit berries and fruits.

In the event of eczema, all recommendations have to be fully followed, since one episode of eczema can be associated with one allergen, then the subsequent exacerbation of the disease can be triggered by completely different allergens.

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

Typical symptoms

Depending on the pathogenesis and etiology, the clinical signs of eczema can vary, but despite this, there are classic symptoms of pathology that manifest themselves in any type of disease:

  • burning and itching in the affected area of ​​the skin;
  • hyperemia (overflow with blood) and tissue edema;
  • A rash (small blisters filled with fluid)
  • the formation of dense crusts on the skin, which occur when the bubbles open;
  • exfoliation of the stratum corneum of the dermis and its further restoration occurs.

Signs of eczema on the fingers

On a note! Throughout the entire cycle of the clinical manifestation of the disease, the patient is faced with symptoms such as irritability, decreased performance, insomnia, and general weakness of the body. Sometimes with eczema on the hands, hyperthermia of the body can occur (overheating of the body as a result of the accumulation of excess heat in the body).

Stages of development of eczema

Many patients notice mental disorders. This is due to the presence of an inferiority complex caused by a pathological condition of the skin. Most often, young women suffer from emotional shock, because the ailment negatively affects their appearance (the manifestations of eczema cannot always be masked with the help of cosmetics).

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

Eczema between the fingers

According to statistics, eczema on the hands is most often localized between the fingers or at their tips. Also, the pathological process can affect the thumb. Ignoring the symptoms of eczema can lead to serious consequences, for example, in the absence of timely therapy, the bubbles formed on the affected skin areas can burst, and purulent ulcers appear in their place. This will cause even more discomfort.

Prevention measures

To prevent new exacerbations of the disease, it is necessary to take preventive measures:

How to prevent the development of eczema

  • use hypoallergenic and moisturizing hand creams regularly;
  • when applying cosmetics, you need to use special brushes, and not your hands;
  • take vitamin complexes prescribed by your doctor;
  • revise your diet, excluding from it all foods that can cause allergies;
  • treat chronic diseases in a timely manner;
  • when in contact with chemicals, be sure to use protective gloves;
  • try to avoid severe stress;
  • observe the daily routine;
  • regularly engage in active sports for general strengthening of the body.

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

What is the prevention of eczema

Eczema is a chronic disease with frequent relapses. This is especially true when eczema appears on the hands, since these zones often come into contact with various kinds of irritants. therefore, in order not to face a dermatological disease in the future, preventive measures must be followed.

Symptoms of atopic dermatitis (eczema)

Eczema is accompanied by persistent symptoms that are periodically exacerbated. During an exacerbation, the manifestations intensify and additional treatment is required.

Typical symptoms of atopic dermatitis include itching, dryness, and redness of the skin, which can crack and crack. Changes in the skin can be patchy or spread throughout the body. Favorite places for eczema:

  • in infants, on the face and scalp, and on the arms and legs;
  • in older children and adults, on the arms, around large joints (for example, at the bend of the elbows or on the inside of the knee joints).

Symptoms vary depending on the severity of dermatitis. In people with a mild form, only small patches of skin are usually affected, which become dry and sometimes itchy. In more severe cases, eczema can cause dry skin over large areas of the body, persistent itching, and interstitial fluid.

Constant itching disrupts sleep, makes you scratch the areas affected by atopic dermatitis, sometimes until blood appears. Attempts to scratch the itchy area only cause increased itching, which is why children especially suffer. Itching prevents them from falling asleep, and during the day distracts from school and distracts attention.

Signs of exacerbation of dermatitis

During an exacerbation of dermatitis, symptoms may become more pronounced. This period is characterized by:

  • extremely severe itching, redness, dryness, peeling and increased skin temperature at the site of the lesion;
  • oozing foci – areas of swollen skin through which tissue fluid seeps;
  • accession of an infection, usually Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcus aureus).

Causes of atopic dermatitis (eczema)

There is no single cause of atopic dermatitis (eczema). It is probably associated with various genetic and environmental factors that interact at different times. So, you can inherit a tendency to develop dermatitis from your parents. In some people, the manifestation of dermatitis is triggered by some environmental factors, dust or pollen. There are several reasons that can cause an exacerbation.

Research has shown that eczema is inherited in many cases. This means that the reason for its occurrence lies in the genes that you inherited from your parents.

If a child’s parents have eczema, the chances are high that he too will develop this disease. Research shows that 60% of children who have a parent with atopic dermatitis will also develop it. If both parents are sick with eczema, the child has an 80% chance of getting sick. It is still not known exactly which genes are responsible for atopic dermatitis. It is believed that breastfeeding can reduce a baby’s risk of eczema.

If genes make you prone to atopic dermatitis, it will appear after exposure to certain environmental factors, such as allergens. An allergen is a substance that causes an excessive defense reaction of the body – an allergy. The most common allergens that cause eczema are:

  • dust mites;
  • pet hair;
  • pollen.

Eczema is sometimes caused by food allergens. It is especially common in children under one year old. Foods that commonly cause an allergic reaction:

  • cow’s milk;
  • eggs;
  • nuts;
  • soy;
  • wheat.

Some studies of children and young adults with eczema suggest that one to two thirds of them have food allergies. Food allergies increase the likelihood of severe eczema. Allergies do not always play a role in the onset of the disease. Many other factors also increase the likelihood of dermatitis, including:

  • cold weather;
  • dampness;
  • some types of soap;
  • washing too often;
  • rough clothes.

Triggers of atopic dermatitis (eczema)

Triggers (factors that exacerbate the disease) can worsen atopic dermatitis, although they are not necessarily the cause of the disease.

Hormonal changes in women. Hormones are biologically active chemicals that are produced by the body and affect it in different ways. In some women, changes in the level of certain hormones can affect the symptoms of eczema. So, in some women, dermatitis worsens during the menstrual cycle, while in others, the day before the onset of menstruation.

Hormonal changes during pregnancy can also affect atopic dermatitis. More than half of pregnant women report a worsening of their condition, in a quarter of pregnant women, on the contrary, their skin condition improves.

Stress is associated with eczema, but it is not fully understood how it affects it. For some people, dermatitis symptoms worsen during stress. In others, dermatitis symptoms, on the other hand, are stressful.

Physical exercises. Sweating after intense exercise can exacerbate dermatitis symptoms. Try not to overheat during exercise by drinking plenty of fluids and getting regular rest.

Irritants can worsen symptoms. Different people have different stimuli, but it can be:

  • soap and detergents such as shampoo, dishwashing detergent, or bubble bath;
  • some types of clothing, especially wool and nylon;
  • overheat;
  • very cold, dry weather;
  • dust;
  • unfamiliar pets.

Other possible triggers :

  • substances that come into contact with the skin, such as perfumes or latex (a type of natural rubber);
  • environmental factors such as tobacco smoke, exhaust fumes or water with a high content of hardness salts (hard water);
  • Changing seasons – Most people with eczema experience symptom relief in summer and worsening in winter.

How eczema is linked to asthma

In Chinese medicine, eczema has many names – for example, it is called Shi Zhen, which translates as “wet wound.” There are names associated with itching because the main complaint of people with eczema is severe itching. In ancient Chinese books, itching with eczema was described as: “So strong that it penetrates the heart.”

Eczema is also called “cutaneous asthma” because many children with eczema develop asthma. Why does such a connection arise? In Chinese medicine, the skin is directly controlled by the lungs. These organs belong to one element, metal, according to the 5 elements theory.

Both organs play an important role in protecting the body from infection, and both are considered breathing: the lungs through inhalation and exhalation, and the skin through the opening and closing of pores. Therefore, in most cases, people with chronic skin conditions have weak lungs.

In Chinese medicine, it is believed that each organ has its own emotion, and an imbalance in this emotion can provoke illness. The emotion that matches the skin is grief and sadness.

This is why severe emotional distress, frustration, grief, and constant stress can be the causes of eczema. However, the rule works in the opposite direction. A person who is ill for a long time changes character: that is, if he suffers from eczema for a long time, then he becomes dull, sad.

Hygiene for eczema

Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

By adhering to the following rules, you can speed up the healing process:

  1. Be sure to wash at least once a day. In this case, the water should be warm, and the duration of the water procedures should be about 10 minutes.
  2. How to wash your hands with eczema, the doctor will recommend. Most often, baby or tar soap is used for this. It is desirable that the detergent has a gel-like structure. In this case, the soap is better distributed over the surface, penetrates into its deep layers and more thoroughly cleanses the epidermis from contamination.
  3. After water procedures, it is advisable to cover the affected area with an emollient or regenerating cream, for example, “Losterin”.
  4. In the room where the sick person stays, wet cleaning should be done regularly. It is advisable to get rid of feather pillows, carpets and other items that can provoke an allergic reaction.
  5. If hand contact with detergents and detergents is unavoidable, you need to protect your skin as much as possible from the irritating effects of aggressive components. To do this, it is recommended to wear two pairs of gloves: first, cotton, and on top – rubber

ICD-10 code

In the international classification of diseases, eczema belongs to the XII class – diseases of the skin and subcutaneous fat.

For this disease, a separate subclass L20-L30, dermatitis and eczema, is distinguished, which includes several types of skin diseases – atopic, contact, diaper dermatitis, microbial inflammatory lesions, including nummular eczema (coin-like dermatitis).

Pruritus of unspecified etiology according to this classification is considered an independent disease with the code L29.

Infectiousness of eczema on the hands, transmission routes

Dry eczema is not contagious in most cases. Despite the fact that the disease is inherited, it is impossible to get infected while wearing the clothes of a sick person. But if the patient has an infection, then he can transmit the pathology to someone, but the probability is low.

Infection occurs in a person with a weakened immune system, and if the immune system is normal, the body quickly reacts to the invasion. If the patient notices signs of inflammation in himself, this is not eczema, but a lesion of the skin, so it is necessary to use medications to cope with the symptoms.

Dry eczema is not spread by shaking hands or by close contact with an infected person. Therefore, one should not avoid the person. Many people compare eczema with scabies and think that the disease is transmitted by visiting the pool, sauna, beach, that is, any public places. This is not true, so you cannot get eczema. The disease is not spread through sexual contact.

Treatment of eczema with folk remedies

People with a chronic form of the disease are interested in how to cure eczema on their hands forever. Folk remedies for eczema suggest using the healing properties of herbs and conspiracies. For the dry form of the disease, hot baths of mustard or sea salt diluted in water help. Treatment of eczema with folk remedies can be carried out in parallel with the use of drugs.

At home, an effective remedy is solidol, it relieves inflammation, dryness and itching. St. John’s wort and black cumin oil helps with inflammation. For the treatment of the foot, you can prepare an ointment: pour the same volumes of raw eggs, water, apple cider vinegar into three glasses, combine everything in one jar, mix well. Smear the mixture on the skin at night and put on socks.


For cooking, you need fresh potatoes, which you need to grate finely. Place the product in cheesecloth and squeeze. You should get juice, which is applied to the fabric and applied to the affected area. Duration of use – 15 minutes. Potatoes should be applied 3 times a day.

Oilcake can be used to treat dry eczema. You need to place it in gauze and apply it like a compress to the affected area. The course is 3 to 4 times a day.

Vegetable oils

You can buy any vegetable oils. Sea buckthorn is best suited as it has a healing effect. But you can use olive, sunflower.

There are the following recipes with oils:

  • You need to mix 3 tbsp. vegetable oil, 1 tbsp. soda. Add 1 liter of warm water. Stir until you get an emulsion-like mixture. Place your hands in a container for 15 minutes.
  • Take 0.3 l of sunflower oil and 1 tbsp. chamomile. Leave for 10 days in a dark place. Filter, apply to the affected area 2 – 3 times a day.
  • Mix olive oil and chamomile in a 1: 1 ratio. Soak a cotton pad with the mixture, wipe the affected skin surface.


As a folk remedy, for dry eczema, you can prepare a collection of herbs. To do this, you need to take chamomile, sage and calendula in equal quantities. For example, 1 tbsp. Then add the mixture to 0.2 l of hot water. Cool, filter. Soak the gauze and apply to the affected area. To improve the effect, you can make this recipe before bed, and wear gloves over the compress.

Spruce resin ointment

There is Zhivitsa ointment on sale, but you can prepare it yourself.

Components:Eczema: causes, symptoms, types and treatment of eczema. How to treat eczema on the hands: treatment with ointments, drugs, folk remedies

  • spruce resin – 100 g;
  • beeswax – 100 g;
  • olive oil – 200 g;
  • honey – 2 tablespoons;
  • propolis – 2 g.

If there is no spruce resin, replacement with any coniferous species is allowed. Cooking does not take long.

First you need to take all the components, except for honey and propolis, place them in a container. Put in a water bath, wait for dissolution (10 min.).

Add honey, cook mixture for 12 minutes.

Place propolis in a container, put in a water bath for another 10 minutes. The ointment should be homogeneous, without excess inclusions (particles). The mixture is cooled and placed in any convenient container. Apply the ointment to the damaged surface 2 – 3 times a day.

Viburnum medicine

For cooking, take 50 g of viburnum berries, add chopped viburnum leaves and currants. Pour the mixture into 1 liter of hot water, leave for 30 minutes. Soak a gauze bandage, apply to the affected area for 30 minutes. Repeat the procedure 3-4 times a day.

There is another way of cooking. It is necessary to smear the pulp from fresh viburnum berries on the affected area. Dressings can be done before bed.

Trays with carrot juice

First you need to prepare the sage infusion. To do this, take 50 g of chopped plant herb, pour 0.5 liters of hot water. Leave on for 60 minutes. For cooking, take 50 g of carrot juice and add to the infusion.

Place your hands in a container with the mixture and hold them for 15 – 20 minutes. After the procedure, fingers should be lubricated with oil or cream of an oily texture. Duration of application is 14 days. Then take a break of 7 days. Repeat recipe if necessary.

Buckwheat flour medicine

You need to grind buckwheat or buy the flour of the same name in the store. The product must be diluted with water to a gruel state. Rub the product 1 – 2 times a day.

Clay treatment

Clay is considered effective for the treatment of dry eczema. You need to buy blue or white clay, dilute with water to a state similar to sour cream. To improve the effect, it is allowed to add birch tar (1 – 2 drops). Apply the gruel to the affected area, wait until it dries.

Once dry eczema is diagnosed, treatment should be started. Therapy should be continued until all symptoms disappear. Treatment is prescribed only by a doctor, since a person alone will not be able to find the necessary medicines. Dry eczema on the hands is a condition that makes a person uncomfortable. Timely treatment is necessary to avoid complications.


During treatment, you must strictly adhere to medical recommendations. It is impossible to independently correct the frequency of the use of ointments and the use of drugs. Even when applying the ointment, the effect may be delayed – it is necessary to wait several days for an adequate assessment of the therapeutic effect. Attempts to use ointments, especially those containing hormones, more often than the doctor prescribed, can lead to complications in the form of a toxic systemic action of these drugs.

During exacerbation of eczema, you should not take water procedures: shower, bath. To cleanse the skin before applying the ointment, blot the eczematous foci with a clean bandage, you can moisten it with a solution of tannin or furacilin. Treatment of foci of eczema with aggressive antiseptics (alcohol, miramistin, potassium permanganate) is prohibited – you can cause skin burns.

Patients with eczema should not expose their skin to cold, heat, strong wind. If eczema is localized on the face, when going outside, you can cover your face with a mask.

Personal hygiene, adherence to a hypoallergenic diet can significantly reduce the frequency of exacerbations of eczema. For hygiene procedures, use hypoallergenic, unscented soaps and detergents.


Tableted forms of drugs for eczema are rarely prescribed. The basis for their use is the development of a generalized process or the resistance of the pathology to local remedies. Hormones, antihistamines and antifungals may be prescribed in tablets.

Hormones in pills for eczema are prescribed in a minimum dose and begin to cancel them as early as possible when a positive effect appears.

In rare cases, with often recurrent, wavy eczema, prednisolone tablets are prescribed in a maintenance dosage.

Antihistamines (Loratadin, Tsetrin, Suprastin) are prescribed in tablets for severe itching that cannot be stopped with ointments. Sometimes one tablet is enough to relieve itching, and sometimes you have to take them for the entire period of exacerbation – up to 5-10 days.

Fluconazole, Flucostat and other systemic antifungal agents in tablets are prescribed with a pronounced widespread process. Can be combined with ointments to improve effectiveness.

As concomitant therapy in tablets and capsules, vitamins and microelements are prescribed (Neurovit, Dekamevit). The prophylactic intake of these funds is recommended – during the period of remission. The dosage regimen of these drugs is determined by the instructions for use.

Long-term eczema gives very unpleasant sensations to patients, so doctors recommend taking light sedatives that eliminate anxiety, relieve psycho-emotional stress (Sonapax, Novo-Passit, Persen).

To reduce the severity of side effects of hormonal drugs and antibiotics, for the purpose of additional desensitization, doctors prescribe: sorbents (activated carbon, sorbifer), enzymes (pancreatin, Creon), pro- and eubiotics (bifiform, linex and others). The duration of taking drugs in this group is 1-2 weeks.

Complications of atopic dermatitis (eczema)

Complications of atopic dermatitis can affect both physical and mental health, especially in children.

Eczema makes the skin dry and cracked, increasing the risk of a skin infection. If you scratch itchy areas and use medicines incorrectly, the risk is increased. The most common type of bacteria that infects eczema lesions is Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial infections can have severe symptoms. A staphylococcal infection can cause the following symptoms:

  • redness;
  • the release of fluid from cracks in the skin (weeping) and the formation of crusts when it dries;
  • high fever and general malaise.

Staphylococcal infections are treated with antibiotics.

An infection of the focus of dermatitis with the herpes simplex virus, the causative agent of herpes fever, may occur. This can develop into a serious condition called herpetic eczema. Symptoms of herpetic eczema:

  • painful foci of a disease that is rapidly progressing;
  • Clusters of fluid-filled blisters that burst open and leave non-healing sores on the skin
  • in some cases, high fever and general malaise.

See your doctor right away if you think you or your child may have herpetic eczema. If the condition is serious, call an ambulance by calling – 03 from a landline phone, 112 or 911 – from a mobile.

In addition to affecting your body, eczema also affects your psyche. Preschool children with eczema are more likely to develop behavioral problems than children without the condition. They are more dependent on their parents than children without the disease.

School-aged children with eczema may be teased or intimidated. For a child, any form of bullying can be traumatic and difficult to deal with. Your child can become quiet and withdrawn. Explain the situation to your child’s teacher and ask your child to share their experiences with you.

Research suggests that children with dermatitis often have sleep disorders. Due to lack of sleep, the child’s mood and behavior change and school performance drops. It is necessary to inform the teacher about your child’s illness so that he can take it into account. During a flare-up of dermatitis, your child may be out of school. This can also affect his academic performance.

Eczema can affect self-esteem in both children and adults. Children can find it especially difficult to cope with the disease, and from this they can develop complexes. Low self-esteem disrupts the child’s social adaptation, interferes with the development of communication skills in a team. Support and encouragement will help increase the child’s self-esteem, and he will be less critical of his appearance.

Sources used and useful links on the topic: -ekzemy-samye-effektivnye-kremy-mazi-tabletki-i / https: // derma-expert. ru / jekzema-na-palcah-ruk -vylechit-navsegda-pri-pomoshchi-kompleksnoy-terapii ekzema-na-rukah-nogah-litse-foto-prichiny-i-lechenie-mazi /

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